Where do you get malic acid from?

Malic acid can be obtained from various natural and synthetic sources:

Natural Sources:

Fruits: Malic acid is naturally present in many fruits, with particularly high concentrations found in apples, cherries, grapes, and citrus fruits.
Plants: Certain plants, such as rhubarb and tomatoes, also contain malic acid.
Fermentation: Some microorganisms produce malic acid during fermentation processes. For example, certain strains of bacteria and fungi can produce malic acid during the fermentation of fruits or carbohydrates.

Synthetic Production:

Chemical Synthesis: Malic acid can be synthesized chemically from other starting materials. One common method involves the hydration of maleic acid or fumaric acid, both of which are dicarboxylic acids.
Biotechnological Production: Advances in biotechnology have enabled the production of malic acid through microbial fermentation processes. Microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger or engineered strains of bacteria are used to ferment sugars or other carbon sources to produce malic acid.

In commercial applications, malic acid is often produced through industrial processes, including both chemical synthesis and fermentation methods.